Joseph Woo [ Part 2 ] [ Part 3 ] [ Site Index ] Pushing ahead, new technology and new techniques The A-mode scan had been used for early pregnancy assessment detection of fetal heart beatcephalometry and placental localization in Europe, Britain, United States, Japan, China, USSR, Poland and Australia in the early s, the measurement of the biparietal diameter BPD having been invented by Ian Donald in and further expanded in his department by James Willocksbasing on improvements in the 'bright-up' markers and the electronic caliper system. The measurements were done 'blindly' without actually seeing the structures under study. Visualising the gestational sac by B-mode ultrasound was first described by the Donald and MacVicar team in
When the gods gave people sex, they gave us a wonderful thing. Kung saying - Nisa. Sexual Paradox in Human Origins A consistent and powerful hypothesis about human emergence is that the complementary reproductive strategies of females and males led to evolutionary gender paradox in early human societies and hence cultural complexity based on sexual relationships driven to a considerable extent by female reproductive choice.
The males, to achieve reproductive success needed to compromise their competition to fit with the cooperative nature of the human group, centered on the family and gathering and social relationships with the females. Selection among males reinforces not just the traditional hunting prowess and toughness 'he-man' but diverse social skills 'domestic bliss' - "a mosaic of qualities that reflect the necessities of compromise Women in turn are the immediate progenitors of offspring, nurturing an articulate and cooperative group culture as well as being societal family-builders and resourceful gatherers of diverse plant species.
In this way human culture evolved in a social setting where male reproductive success was mediated through the social awareness of the female gatherers, upon whom the child rearing and basic food resource of the society depended. Our early human record speaks of ayear period of gatherer-hunter emergence in which women and men enjoyed a degree of reproductive autonomy and choice regained by our own societies only in part in the last century.
Homo sapiens has spent the vast majority of this time leaving only flaked tools with only minor changes of design, the social aspects of culture, which are not so easily left in artifacts may have become highly attuned to complex and subtle interactions.
Although so-called "primitive" cultures are diverse and parallels, between modern gatherer-hunters and our ancestral origins remain speculative, among the few primitive hunter-gatherers still existent, egalitarian societies such as the!
Kung-san 'bushmen' of the Kalahari, the Sandawe and Hadzabe of Tanzania and the Biaka and Mbuti 'pygmies' of the Congo Basin have much to teach us both genetically and culturally.
Genetic Emergence of Modern Humans Chromosomes contain a variety of markers that can be used to compare diverse populations and infer an evolutionary relationship between them. These include the slowly varying protein polymorphisms of coding regions which are useful for long-term trends, single nucleotide polymorphisms, and non-coding region changes mutation rates about 2.
The insertions and deletions of the million or so Alu elements in the human genome p are particularly useful, as the most active sub-population of about Alu is actively transcribing and undergoing rapid change. A subpopulation of Alu are capable of generating new coding regions exonswhen inserted into non-coding introns between spliced sections of a translated mRNA, because one base-pair change within Alu leads to formation of a new exon reading into the surrounding DNA.
This is not necessarily deleterious because alternative splicing still allows the original protein to be made as well.
We have the highest number of introns per gene of any organism, and thus have to have gained an advantage from this costly error-prone process. Alus may have given rise, through alternative splicing, to new proteins that drove primates' divergence from other mammals.
Recent studies have shown that the nearly identical genes of humans and chimps produce essentially the same proteins in most tissues, except in parts of the brain, where certain human genes are more active and others generate significantly different proteins through alternative splicing of gene transcripts.
Our divergence from other primates may thus be due in part to alternative splicing. Southern African ancient genomes estimate modern human divergence toyears ago, with a genetic split between the Khoisan and other Africansyears ago, shortly after humankind's origins and around the time of the Florisbad individual.
Khoisan people then diverged into two genetically distinct populations aroundyears ago. Population movements deduced from ancient DNA Soglund et al. There has also been an admixing of Western Eurasian non-African genomes firstly into Ethiopia 2,—3, years ago and eventually down ino the Khoe San between 1, and years ago, where Neanderthal genes due to the Eurasian Neanderthall introgression showed up in a genetic assay Pickrell et al.
This has historical consistency with cultural accounts of Makeda, the Ethopian tale of the Queen of Sheba. An in depth study into human origins Schlebusch et al doi: African populations branch in two directions and then further subdivide aroundyears ago.
Non-African populations, appeared shortly afteryears ago. A genetic split between the Khoisan and other Africans occurred roughlyyears ago, shortly after humankind's origins and around the time of the Florisbad individual. Khoisan people then diverged into two genetically distinct populations aroundyears ago, the researchers calculate.
A study of ancient genomes Skoglund et al. The researchers compared these, along with one other ancient genome from the region, against those of nearly present-day people from 59 African populations and people from non-African groups. The results indicate that there was a complete population replacement eliminating the existing gatherer-hunter population realted to the Khoe-San yellow as farmers moved into Malawi, unlike the picture in Europe where famers admixed witht eh existing gatherer-hunter population.
The Hadza red were found to have had a central position in ancient african migration and may have also participated in the out of Africa migration.
White House threatens US-Israeli relations, no congrats. White House press secretary Josh Earnest told reporters Wednesday that the “president” did not congratulate Israel Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu for his decisive election victory--not this time, nor the time before. World's Columbian Exposition of This page is bought to you by the Hyde Park-Kenwood Community Conference and its website, grupobittia.com as well as Jackson Park Advisory Council. Kevin MacDonald is Professor of Psychology, California State University (Long Beach), and the author of A People That Shall Dwell Alone (), Separation and Its Discontents (), and The Culture of Critique (), all published by Praeger.
The study also found that West Africans green can trace their lineage back to a human ancestor that may have split off from other African populations even earlier than the Khoe-San.
A missing link with a Near Eastern herder population that returned to Africa.
Adaptions were found for resisting UV radiation e. Middle Stone Age Cultural Artefacts. H,I Tanged tools from northern Africa.World's Columbian Exposition of This page is bought to you by the Hyde Park-Kenwood Community Conference and its website, grupobittia.com as well as Jackson Park Advisory Council.
An Overview of Diversity Awareness COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES. 2 our society’s approach to diversity has been assimilation. The United States has been called peppers, and tomatoes maintain their shapes, color, and taste in a tossed salad.
As a result, individuals can. As a follow-up to Tuesday’s post about the majority-minority public schools in Oslo, the following brief account reports the latest statistics on the cultural enrichment of schools in Austria.
Vienna is the most fully enriched location, and seems to be in roughly the same situation as Oslo. Many thanks to Hermes for the translation from grupobittia.com Auto Suggestions are available once you type at least 3 letters.
Use up arrow (for mozilla firefox browser alt+up arrow) and down arrow (for mozilla firefox browser alt+down arrow) to review and enter to select. Ecological Self Diversity is a whirlwind of color through a society. There are no two people in the world that are exactly alike.
Individuality distinguishes one person or thing from others (Landau, Ed). Outline of Döblin's Berlin Alexanderplatz. Page references are to Eugene Jolas's circa English translation of the novel, initially published as Alexanderplatz, Berlin; the edition used here is from Frederick Ungar Publishing Co.,New York (sixth printing, ).