Here he entered into a circle of some of the greatest philosophical and scientific minds of the age.
Introduction Aristotle was a disciple of Plato and the teacher of Alexander the Great. Plato's view of literature is heavily conditioned by the ambiance of political concern which pervaded Athens at the time.
Aristotle belongs to a later age, in which the role of Athens as a secondary minor power seems definitely settled. His view of literature does not answer to any immediate political theory, and consequently his critical approach is more intrinsic.
Only part of it has survived, and that in the form of notes for a course, and not as a developed theoretical treatise. Aristotle's theory of literature may be considered to be the answer to Plato's. Of course, he does much more than merely answer. He develops a whole theory of his own which is opposed to Plato's much as their whole philosophical systems are opposed to each other.
For Aristotle as for Plato, the theory of literature is only a part of a general theory of reality. This means that an adequate reading of the Poetics must take into account the context of Aristotelian theory which is defined above all by the Metaphysics, the Ethics, the Politics and the Rhetoric.
Plato's theory of literature may be said to rest on the metaphysical basis of his theory of ideas. Aristotle reacts against Platonism in all areas of knowledge. He does not believe that the world of appearances is an ephemeral copy of changeless ideas; rather, he believes that the essence of things is not in the transcendent world of ideas, but rather in the things themselves.
Change does not imply falsity: Change is a fundamental process of Nature, which is regarded by Aristotle as a creative force with a direction in itself.
Similarly, every element in Nature has its own place and its own internal purpose, including poetry. It is therefore wrong to deny poetry its proper purpose, as Plato had done in Ion, where he tried to reduce the object and end of poetry to the objects and ends of the crafts it imitates.
Poetry may have its own internal laws, but "for Aristotle as much as for Plato, it is an art to be praised or blamed, only in its relation to the whole human being of whom it is both the instrument and the reflection.". The Rhetoric & The Poetics of Aristotle Quotes that is a charge which may be made in common against all good things except virtue, and above all against the things that are most useful, as strength, health, wealth, generalship. A man can confer the greatest of benefits by a right use of these, and inflict the greatest of injuries by using. In the case of rhetoric, this was accomplished by arguing that Plato did not condemn all oratory but only bad oratory and uncritical audiences. 5 The reconciliation of Plato with poetry (especially Homeric epic) was more complex, with more far reaching consequences.
With Aristotle, we are not so much concerned with what poetry says as we are with what poetry is. Aristotle's main contribution to criticism may well be the idea that poetry is after all an art with an object of its own, that it can be rationally understood and reduced to an intelligible set of rules that is, it is an "art," according to the definition in the Ethics.
The main concern of the rules of the Poetics, however, is not with the composition of literary works; it is rather with their critical evaluation. Consequently, criticism can be a science, and not a mass of random principles and intuitions. Poetry finds a place in Aristotle's general scheme of human activity.
He divides human activity into three areas: Poetry and the arts he includes under the head of imitation mimesis which is one of the divisions of production. Both the Rhetoric and the Poetics can be considered --to be expansions of this view.
Poetry may have its own internal laws, but "for Aristotle as much as for Plato, it is an art to be praised or blamed, only in its relation to the whole human being of whom it is both the instrument and the reflection.
That is what Aristotle does with "teaching". As to "pleasure," he doesn't accept it at face value either. He rather makes an organic combination of the two theories: He avoids facile and rigid assertions on the matter, but one thing is clear: Not as historical processes, though.
Aristotle's approach, like the Greek approach in general, seems to us too categorical, essentialist and ahistorical.Burnyeat , 1: “To rebut Plato’s critique of poetry, what is needed is not a defence of poetry, but a defence of the freedom of poets to write as, and what, they wish.” This laid the background for Aristotle’s defense of poetry in the Poetics.
With this work, Aristotle took on the role of the defender of poetry. After Plato’s death, Aristotle traveled to Assos where under the patronage of Hermias, Aristotle founded his first philosophical school. During the trial, as Socrates is accused of a number of crimes, Plato reports that Socrates offered an impassioned speech in which he confronts his accusers directly, again offering forth a number of perplexing questions rather than direct answers to his assumed “crimes" against his society.
Apology by Plato, part of the Internet Classics Archive Home: Browse and Comment: Search Apology By Plato Translated by Benjamin Jowett. Socrates' Defense How you have felt, O men of Athens, at hearing the And they are many, and their charges against me are of ancient date, and they made them in days when you were impressible - in.
Plato (5) Poetry (1) Postcolonial Reading (1) Postmodernist reading (2) Pride and Prejudice (4) How does Dr.
Johnson defend Shakespeare against the charges of violating the Dramatic Unities? Johnson thus expunges the Aristotelian concept of Unity of Place in dramatic poetry. Then to comment upon the Unity of Time, Johnson claims that by. Another device Plato uses for a proper education is strict censorship of literature, especially poetry and drama.
Pericles, in his defense of democracy, gives priority to historical facts over prose: “ far from needing a Homer for our panegyrist, or other of his craft whose verses might charm for the moment only for the impression which.