In Venezuela and Central America the situation was the reverse. During the war the State Department endorsed all-American oil concessions, but, in accordance with the principle of reciprocity, Hughes instructed his Latin-American ambassadors in to respect foreign interests. Latin America in general… The background Though the conditions of pre-Columbian America and 15th-century Iberia are beyond the scope of Latin American history proper, they must be given consideration in that connection. Not only did the geography of precontact America persist, but both the new arrivals and the indigenous inhabitants long retained their respective general characteristics, and it was the fit between them that determined many aspects of Latin American evolution.
Latin American music and dance The term Latin American as used here encompasses the Americas south of the United States, as well as the entire Caribbean. The musics of this vast area are perhaps most efficiently discussed in terms of ethnic components--European especially IberianAmerindian, African, and mestizo "mixed" or acculturated.
Amerindian Background During the colonial period in Latin America 16thth century many Amerindian populations were decimated, and much traditional Amerindian musical culture was destroyed or syncretized with Iberian.
Little evidence remains as to the real nature of music in the Aztec, Inca, and Maya civilizations apart from the testimony of 16th-century Spanish chroniclers and what can be seen of instruments--percussion and winds, with almost total absence of strings--depicted in hieroglyphs and pottery decorations.
Modern Andean Indians still make extensive use of vertical Latin american popular culture s transformed into and panpipes, along with European instruments such as bass drums, harps, and guitars of different sizes. Only in certain tropical areas as the Amazon basin are virtually unacculturated Amerindian musics found.
Iberian Influences relatively few Iberian genres have been retained in their original forms, Iberian origins of many song and dance forms are evident in the use of harps, fiddles, guitars, and many song types derived from Spanish verse structures such as the copla and decima.
Such genres include the desafio of Brazil, cueca of Chile and Bolivia, joropo of Venezuela, sones and corrido of Mexico, seis of Puerto Rico, and punto of Cuba. They are usually danced in couples and often incorporate such features as shoe tapping and scarf waving. In addition to the above dances of Iberian derivation, pan-European ballroom dances such as the polka, mazurka, and waltz developed many regional variations.
African Influences The largest black populations are found in the circum-Caribbean region and Brazil. African musical features commonly retained include call and response singing, polyrhythms, extensive use of persistently repeated musical figures, and improvisation based on recurring short phrases.
African instruments primarily percussive found in both unaltered and adapted forms, with many regional names and variations, include long drums, often in "family" sets of three congasiron gongs, internal or external rattles maracas, shekere"thumb piano" marimbulamarimbas, and concussion sticks claves.
Clave is also the name of an important syncopated rhythmic figure. Before the carnival begins musicians try out their songs nightly before audiences in Port of Spain. The most popular are used during the carnival.
The words of calypso songs are witty and humorous and convey popular attitudes on social, political, or economic problems. As a type of ballroom dance, calypso resembles the rumba, and the music often is performed with conventional dance-band instruments. The most African forms are usually associated with African-derived religions, such as voodoo of Haiti and the Yoruba-oriented candomble of Brazil and santeria of Cuba.
RUMBA Rumba is a type of medium-to-fast polyrhythmic Afro-Cuban song and dance, with a three-part form of introduction, improvised verses, and repetitive call-and-response.
It is typically accompanied by 2 to 3 conga drums and sticks. This structure has been adapted for Cuban popular music ensembles.
Southwestand guaracha and son of Cuba. It developed in the early 19th century and is related to the meringue of Haiti.
The merengue rhythm is a moderate to extremely fast duple meter, and is danced with a simple sideways couple two-step. It is found in both folk music, using accordion, double-headed tambora drum, and metal guayo scraper, and in various popular orchestral formats.
Impact on World Musics Still more Europeanized forms individual songs, genres, and their dance steps have become popular on the "pan-Latin" and international level through their diffusion by mass media.
TANGO A dance that evolved in Buenos Aires at the end of the 19th century, the tango is probably derived from the milonga, a lively, suggestive Argentinian dance, and the habanera of Cuba and the West Indies.
By the s it had become a popular ballroom dance in Europe and the United States, and had been transformed into a flowing, elegant series of steps accompanied by somewhat melancholy music with a characteristic tango beat.Feb 11, · Chinese banks sent nearly $30 billion in loans to Latin American governments last year, more than double the amount from It's also more money than the World Bank and Inter-American.
The official Web site of Popular Hispanics, an online news magazine reporting celebrity music & entertainment news all with a Hispanic-Latin twist. Latin American music, musical traditions of Mexico, Central America, and the portions of South America and the Caribbean colonized by the Spanish and the Portuguese.
These traditions reflect the distinctive mixtures of Native American, African, and European influences that have shifted throughout the region over time.. This article surveys religious, folk, and art (informally, classical) music.
American popular music has had a profound effect on music across the world. at which time it had evolved into vaudeville. roll began in the s as diverse and seldom heard segments of the population achieved a dominant voice in mainstream culture and transformed the very concept of what popular music was.
Aug 09, · The Pew Research survey finds that nearly all Catholics and Protestants in most Latin American countries believe in God. In a number of countries, most of Religion in Latin America Chapter 3: Religious Beliefs.
the bread and wine are transformed into the body and blood of Christ. Stretching from the years during the Second World War when young couples jitterbugged across the dance floor at the Zenda Ballroom, through the early s when honking tenor saxophones could be heard at the Angelus Hall, to the Spanish-language cosmopolitanism of the late s and s, Mexican American Mojo.
is a lively account of Mexican American urban culture in wartime and .