The subject of angels has long fascinated mankind, not just believers but unbelievers, and not just dedicated believers bent on spiritual growth, but also those with "itchy ears" for this subject but not necessarily for other teachings of the Bible. The purpose of this study is to give an essential overview of what God would have us to know about angels based upon what is actually contained in His Word.
Instrument of Jesus' crucifixion The gibbet on which crucifixion was carried out could be of many shapes. Josephus describes several tortures and positions of crucifixion during the Siege of Jerusalem as Titus crucified the rebels;  and Seneca the Younger recounts: Frequently, however, there was a cross-piece attached either at the top to give the shape of a T crux commissa or just below the top, as in the form most familiar in Christian symbolism crux immissa.
It is a graffito found in a taberna hostel for wayfarers in Puteoli, dating to the time of Trajan or Hadrian late 1st century to early 2nd century AD.
Lucian speaks of Prometheus as crucified "above the ravine with his hands outstretched" and explains that the letter T the Greek letter tau was looked upon as an unlucky letter or sign similar to the way the number thirteen is looked upon today as an unlucky numbersaying that the letter got its "evil significance" because of the "evil instrument" which had that shape, an instrument on which tyrants crucified people.
Jehovah's Witnesses argue that Jesus was crucified on a crux simplex, and that the crux immissa was first used as a Christian symbol near the time of the supposed conversion of Emperor Constantine. The New Testament writings about the crucifixion of Jesus do not speak specifically about the shape of that cross, but the early writings that do speak of its shape, from about the year AD on, describe it as shaped like the letter T the Greek letter tau  or as composed of an upright and a transverse beam, sometimes with a small projection in the upright.
Sharp, in St.
The Crucifixion,  showed that nailed feet provided enough support for the body, and that the hands could have been merely tied. Nailing the feet to the side of the cross relieves strain on the wrists by placing most of the weight on the lower body. Another possibility, suggested by Frederick Zugibeis that the nails may have been driven in at an angle, entering in the palm in the crease that delineates the bulky region at the base of the thumb, and exiting in the wrist, passing through the carpal tunnel.
A foot-rest suppedaneum attached to the cross, perhaps for the purpose of taking the person's weight off the wrists, is sometimes included in representations of the crucifixion of Jesus, but is not discussed in ancient sources.
Some scholars interpret the Alexamenos graffitothe earliest surviving depiction of the Crucifixion, as including such a foot-rest.
Inarchaeologists discovered at Giv'at ha-Mivtar in northeast Jerusalem the remains of one Jehohananwho had been crucified in the 1st century. The remains included a heel bone with a nail driven through it from the side. The tip of the nail was bent, perhaps because of striking a knot in the upright beam, which prevented it being extracted from the foot.
A first inaccurate account of the length of the nail led some to believe that it had been driven through both heels, suggesting that the man had been placed in a sort of sidesaddle position, but the true length of the nail, The length of time required to reach death could range from hours to days depending on method, the victim's health, and the environment.
A literature review by Maslen and Mitchell  identified scholarly support for several possible causes of death: The condemned would therefore have to draw himself up by the arms, leading to exhaustionor have his feet supported by tying or by a wood block. When no longer able to lift himself, the condemned would die within a few minutes.
Some scholars, including Frederick Zugibeposit other causes of death. The test subjects had no difficulty breathing during experiments, but did suffer rapidly increasing pain,   which is consistent with the Roman use of crucifixion to achieve a prolonged, agonizing death.
However, Zugibe's positioning of the test subjects' feet is not supported by any archaeological or historical evidence. There is an ancient record of one person who survived a crucifixion that was intended to be lethal, but that was interrupted.
I was very sorry at this in my mind, and went with tears in my eyes to Titusand told him of them; so he immediately commanded them to be taken down, and to have the greatest care taken of them, in order to their recovery; yet two of them died under the physician's hands, while the third recovered.
Archaeological evidence[ edit ] Although the ancient Jewish historian Josephus, as well as other sources,[ which? This was discovered at Givat HaMivtarJerusalem in The only reason these archaeological remains were preserved was because family members gave this particular individual a customary burial.
The remains were found accidentally in an ossuary with the crucified man's name on it, ' Jehohananthe son of Hagakol'. The position of the nail relative to the bone indicates that the feet had been nailed to the cross from their side, not from their front; various opinions have been proposed as to whether they were both nailed together to the front of the cross or one on the left side, one on the right side.
The point of the nail had olive wood fragments on it indicating that he was crucified on a cross made of olive wood or on an olive tree. Additionally, a piece of acacia wood was located between the bones and the head of the nail, presumably to keep the condemned from freeing his foot by sliding it over the nail.
His legs were found broken, possibly to hasten his death. It is thought that because in Roman times iron was rare, the nails were removed from the dead body to conserve costs.
According to Haas, this could help to explain why only one nail has been found, as the tip of the nail in question was bent in such a way that it could not be removed. Haas had also identified a scratch on the inner surface of the right radius bone of the forearm, close to the wrist.
He deduced from the form of the scratch, as well as from the intact wrist bones, that a nail had been driven into the forearm at that position.Rohan was born and raised in South Africa.
After immigrating to the United States with his family he attended school at Brigham Young University – Idaho where he earned a .
Angelology: the Study of Angels: Part 2A of Bible Basics: Essential Doctrines of the Bible. Includes The Purpose, Creation and Nature of Angels, Satan's Rebellion and World Rule, The Occasion of the devil's Rebellion and fall from grace, God's Judgment on the Universe, God's Restoration of the Earth, God's Replacement for Satan, Satan and the Fall of Man, The Limits of Satan's World Rule.
Crucifixion is a method of capital punishment in which the victim is tied or nailed to a large wooden beam and left to hang for several days until eventual death from exhaustion and asphyxiation.. The crucifixion of Jesus is a central narrative in Christianity, and the cross (sometimes depicting Jesus nailed onto it) is the main religious symbol for many Christian churches.
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