Two millennia of mean surface temperatures according to different reconstructions from climate proxieseach smoothed on a decadal scale, with the instrumental temperature record overlaid in black. Multiple independently produced datasets confirm that from to the global average land and ocean surface temperature increased by 0. The rest has melted ice and warmed the continents and the atmosphere. Regional effects of global warming and Cold blob North Atlantic Difference between average temperature in — compared to the period, showing strong arctic amplification.
History of the greenhouse effect and global warming By S. Enzler MSc History of the greenhouse effect and global warming Svante Arrhenius was a Swedish scientist that was the first to claim in that fossil fuel combustion may eventually result in enhanced global warming.
He proposed a relation between atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and temperature. He found that the average surface temperature of the earth is about 15oC because of the infrared absorption capacity of water vapor and carbon dioxide.
This is called the natural greenhouse effect. Arrhenius suggested a doubling of the CO2 concentration would lead to a 5oC temperature rise. He and Thomas Chamberlin calculated that human activities could warm the earth by adding carbon dioxide to the atmosphere.
This research was a by-product of research of whether carbon dioxide would explain the causes of the great Ice Ages. This was not actually verified until After the discoveries of Arrhenius and Chamberlin the topic was forgotten for a very long time.
At that time it was thought than human influences were insignificant compared to natural forces, such as solar activity and ocean circulation. It was also believed that the oceans were such great carbon sinks that they would automatically cancel out our pollution.
Water vapor was seen as a much more influential greenhouse gas. In the 's there were developments in infrared spectroscopy for measuring long-wave radiation. At that time it was proven that increasing the amount of atmospheric carbon dioxide resulted in more absorption of infrared radiation.
It was also discovered that water vapor absorbed totally different types of radiation than carbon dioxide. Gilbert Plass summarized these results in He concluded that adding more carbon dioxide to the atmosphere would intercept infrared radiation that is otherwise lost to space, warming the earth.
The argument that the oceans would absorb most carbon dioxide was still intact. However, in the 's evidence was found that carbon dioxide has an atmospheric lifetime of approximately 10 years. Moreover, it was not yet known what would happen to a carbon dioxide molecule after it would eventually dissolve in the ocean.
Perhaps the carbon dioxide holding capacity of oceans was limited, or carbon dioxide could be transferred back to the atmosphere after some time. Research showed that the ocean could never be the complete sink for all atmospheric CO2.
It is thought that only nearly a third of anthropogenic CO2 is absorbed by oceans. In the late 's and early 's Charles Keeling used the most modern technologies available to produce concentration curves for atmospheric CO2 in Antarctica and Mauna Loa.
These curves have become one of the major icons of global warming. The curves showed a downward trend of global annual temperature from the 's to the 's.
At the same time ocean sediment research showed that there had been no less than 32 cold-warm cycles in the last 2,5 million years, rather than only 4. Therefore, fear began to develop that a new ice age might be near. The media and many scientists ignored scientific data of the 's and 's in favor of global cooling.
In the 's, finally, the global annual mean temperature curve started to rise. People began to question the theory of an upcoming new ice age.US A1 ABSTRACT A method for controlling hurricanes by raising temperature in the eye and/or in the outflow.
Air temperature within the eye and in the outflow of a hurricane is raised by flying scores of . Frontier Energy is the world's first publication, eNewsletter and website to focus on the oil & gas and shipping operations in the Arctic and other environmentally challenging and harsh, ice-affected regions.
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Pictures, video and more. The first argument this paper will discuss regarding global warming is the alleged consensus of scientists that Anthropogenic global warming is indeed occurring.
Second, to explore the methods of the scientific data collected thus far and illustrate the flaws in the collected data and prediction models based on that data. It looks like you've lost connection to our server. Please check your internet connection or reload this page.