Kazan, the capital of the Tatar Khanate of Kazan, fell to the Russian army of Ivan the Terrible after a siege in Many of the city's defenders and civilian inhabitants were massacred. RBTH remembers how he made it into the history books. Before him all rulers of Muscovy were Grand Princes.
Upon his father's death, Ivan formally came to the throne at the age of three, but his minority was dominated by regents. Initially his mother Elena Glinskaya acted as regent. Under her leadership Moscow successfully waged wars with Lithuania, the Crimean Khanate, and the Tatars.
She carried out monetary reforms, introducing the smallest unit—kopeyka. She died, however, when Ivan was only eight it is rumored she was poisoned. She was replaced as regent by boyars feudal aristocrats one rank below the princes from the Shuisky family until Ivan assumed power in According to his own letters, Ivan customarily felt neglected and offended by the mighty boyars from the Shuisky and Belsky families.
In one letter, he painfully recalls an episode when one drunken boyar put his dirty boots on Ivan's bed. These traumatic experiences doubtlessly contributed to his hatred of the boyars and to his mental instability. Constant struggle among the boyars formed a suspicious, cruel character in Ivan.
He was known to throw cats and dogs out of the Kremlin windows, among other cruel acts. At the age of 13 he ordered that his mentor, boyarin Shuisky, be beaten to death.
Ivan was crowned tsar with Monomakh's Cap at the Cathedral of the Dormition at age 16 on January 16, On February 13, he married Anastasia Romanovna.
Although she was from a less prominent family, she brought love and reconciliation in his life for a while and was dearly loved by him. They had three sons—Fyodor future tsarIvan killed by Ivan IV inand Dmitriy died in Uglitch of unknown causes —and three daughters, giving rise to the new dynasty of the Romanov's.
Ivan revised the law code known as the sudebnikcreated a standing army the streltsyintroduced a new system of government prikaz, a prototype of state departmentsestablished a council of the nobles known as the Zemsky Sobor, or Chosen Counciland confirmed the position of the Church with the Stoglav Council of the Hundred Chapterswhich unified the rituals and ecclesiastical regulations of the entire country.
During his reign, the first printing press was introduced to Russia although the first Russian printers Ivan Fedorov and Pyotr Mstislavets had to flee from Moscow to Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
Meanwhile, diplomatic relations with England, Belgium, and Holland were established. The German merchant companies ignored the new port built by Tsar Ivan on the river Narva in and delivered the goods still in the Baltic ports owned by Livonia.
Russia remained isolated from sea trade. Ivan formed new trading connections, opening up the White Sea and the port of Arkhangelsk to the Muscovy Company of English merchants.
He also annexed the Kazan Khanate in and the Astrakhan Khanate to the east, thus transforming Russia into a multinational and multi-confessional state. Basil's Cathedral constructed in Moscow to commemorate the seizure of Kazan Khanate. Legend holds that Ivan was so impressed with the structure that he had the architects blinded, so that they could never design anything as beautiful again.
Other less positive aspects of this period include the introduction of the first laws restricting the mobility of the peasants, which would eventually lead to serfdom. The beginning of dramatic change in Ivan's personality is traditionally linked to his near-fatal illness in Ivan suspected boyars of plotting to replace him on the throne with his cousin, Vladimir of Staritsa.
In addition, during that illness Ivan had asked the boyars to swear an oath of allegiance to his eldest son, an infant at the time. Many boyars refused, for doctors deemed the tsar's health too hopeless to survive. This angered Ivan and added to his distrust of the boyars. The year is traditionally marked as year of his mental and emotional breakdown.
Ivan IV Vasilyevich (Russian: Иван IV Васильевич) (August 25, – March 18, ) was the Grand Duke of Muscovy from C.E. to C.E. and was the first ruler of Russia to assume the title of tsar. His long reign saw the conquest of Tartary and Siberia and subsequent transformation of Russia into a multiethnic and multi-confessional state, yet his life among his family and close advisors degenerated . Ivan IV Vasilyevich (Russian: Иван IV Васильевич) (August 25, – March 18, ) was the Grand Duke of Muscovy from C.E. to C.E. and was the first ruler of Russia to assume the title of tsar. His long reign saw the conquest of Tartary and Siberia and subsequent transformation of Russia into a multiethnic and multi-confessional state, yet his life . Aug 21, · Red Square: A Center of Russian Life. Czar Ivan IV (known as Ivan the Terrible) ordered the construction of a cathedral on Red Square’s southeast end in to honor his capture of the Mongol.
His beloved wife Anastasia Romanovna died after 13 years of marriage and Ivan blamed boyars for her death. Shortly after, his former supporters were, one by one, executed, exiled, or forced to flee, along with their families. Previously famous for his ascetic lifestyle, Ivan began to behave oppositely.
He hosted lavish feasts and orgies. To overcome opposition, Ivan threatened to resign in While boyar factions contemplated what to do, the population panicked and forced them to accept Ivan's conditions—demand for dictatorial power.Ivan the Terrible, as he is known in English, is actually named Ivan IV Vasilyevich.
He was the first tsar of Russia. A tsar was the supreme ruler of the Russian empire. Nov 10, · Ivan the Terrible implemented the first known modernization attempt in Russia. In the XVI century, Russia faced an external pressure from Poland and the Crimean Tatars. The main problem for Ivan IV was a weak financial base that could not compensate for the technological advantages of .
Jul 09, · Biography of Ivan the Terrible, the first Russian tsar. Years of rule. Information about the reforms undertaken by the Russia absolute sovereign.
Bloody repression and confiscations. Wars. Personal life of the Russian tsar. Photos. Information about the main architectural landmarks from the time of Ivan the Terrible/5(5).
Ivan IV Vasilyevich (Russian: Иван IV Васильевич) (August 25, – March 18, ) was the Grand Duke of Muscovy from C.E. to C.E. and was the first ruler of Russia to assume the title of tsar.
His long reign saw the conquest of Tartary and Siberia and subsequent transformation of Russia into a multiethnic and multi-confessional state, yet his life among his family and close advisors degenerated .
Back then, the Tatar armies repeatedly devastated Russia’s northeast. In Ivan crushed the Tatar stronghold of Kazan and then another one – Astrakhan. Ivan’s life took a dramatic turn, strikingly changing his personality and his policies.
Ivan IV the Terrible Ivan IV the Terrible is remembered for his cruelty and brutal. Home History Encyclopedias almanacs transcripts and maps Ivan IV, "The Terrible" (Russia) (–; Ruled –) Print this article Print all entries for this topic.