His life was caught up in some of themost momentous events of the 20th century. He fought in World War I, took part in the Russian Revolution, became a leader of guerrilla resistance to the German occupation of Yugoslavia, and after World War II until his death he was the leader of the country. During this period, he defied Joseph Stalin over the communist consolidation of power in Yugoslavia.
The Economics of Post-Modernity: Despite retaining a communist one-party political regime throughout its existence —Yugoslavia was the first socialist country to attempt far-reaching economic reforms.
Because of its early start and frequency of systemic changes, it was considered the most reformed socialist economy.
Yugoslavia officially ceased to exist in October Following the popular referenda in Slovenia and Croatia and the subsequent declaration of political independence by the two republics in Junethe Yugoslav federation disintegrated into five independent states: Slovenia in May and Croatia in Julythough all the other countries are aspiring to join.
The paper will first describe the Yugoslav model of socialism: It will proceed to reflect on the overall economic results of continuous systemic reforms in Yugoslavia section 5 and the situation in the country in the late s, when the transition to market economy was starting section 6.
It will also discuss systemic changes in the Yugoslav successor states: An overview of the different outcomes of the transition to a capitalist system in the individual countries will also be given by considering the most relevant economic and social indicators section 8.
The country was fully supported by the Western Allies and was given international recognition in March The change in the political regime was the outcome of the victory of the revolutionary army — the partisan movement led by Josip Broz Tito — that had liberated the country from Nazi occupation.
The communist regime in Yugoslavia was therefore the product of a grass-root revolution, not imposed by the Soviet Union as in most East European countries, which explains why it had wide popular support. As noted by a known historian: With its status as an Ally supported by all the powers, and with its revolutionary army, it had a substantial advance in terms of political, economic and social transformation… As such it was the only Communist regime capable of falling out with the Soviet Union.
The Yugoslav political and economic structure was indeed, initially, set up copying the Soviet model. Serbia also had two autonomous regions, Vojvodina in the north and Kosovo and Metohija in the south, since it was regarded that its larger size with respect to the other republics could be a threat to Yugoslav unity.
The economic system also fully reflected the Soviet model, since the main elements that represented the bases of the socialist economic system Lavigne, were introduced: During this initial period, the Yugoslav economic system had features of the typical socialist economic system. According to Marx, the law of value acting through the market mechanism led to the deepening of inequalities, to the polarisation of wealth and poverty, the rich becoming richer and the poor poorer.
This criticism was not confined solely to the most outstanding inequalities between the two main classes of society — the capitalists and the wage-earners — but also by various derived inequalities such as inequalities among capitalists themselves, the disproportionate development of various economic sectors or unequal regional development.
At that time in Yugoslavia it was firmly believed that in a socialist society the action of the law of value would be abolished or considerably restricted and that thereby the market would lose its importance.
For a brief period, the Yugoslav economy was organised along very similar lines as the Soviet Union.
It was based on centralised planning, state ownership of enterprises brought about through nationalisation and expropriation of private property, state monopoly over the most important spheres of the economy investment, banking, foreign trade and administrative control of most prices.
The system ensured full control of the federal political authorities over the economy. The nationalisation of productive resources and of large economic establishments was carried out in several stages. It began with the confiscation of enemy property after the war and was completed by the nationalisation laws in that applied to all large industrial enterprises, transport, wholesale trade, banks and insurance companies; and the law which nationalised undertakings of lesser importance such as small electric power stations, small mines, brick works, mills, hospitals, hotels, cinemas.
The land reform in eliminated the large landowners and the surviving features of the feudal system and limited holdings to a maximum of 75 — 87 acres lowered further to 25 acres in All the economic assets expropriated and nationalised came under public ownership, as well as a small fraction of the land, though the greater part was allotted to poor peasants in the form of private holdings.
In this way, the state sector held a dominant position in the economy. The —51 Five Year Plan ensured the construction of many important factories in various branches of industry, particularly heavy industry.
However, the creation of a publicly owned sector raised the question of the administration and utilisation of public property. A powerful state-operated economy was created, centralised in the hands of the state as the representative of the whole nation.
The system of planned administration was developed to the smallest details, and was extended down from the federal plan through the plans of the federal republics and districts, to plans in enterprises and co-operative farms. Though attempts were made to have the draft plans publicly discussed by trade unions and specialised organisations, final decisions were taken by the Planning Commission and the appropriate Ministries.
The state was responsible for the allocation of raw materials and fuel, done in accordance with production plans, and also for the distribution of finished products. These events facilitated the abandoning of the earlier uncritical emulation of the Soviet model although with some delay; thus agriculture was briefly collectivised in to prove socialist conformity Estrin,p.Illiberal Tolerance: An Essay on the Fall of Yugoslavia and the Rise of Multiculturalism in the United States Virginia Journal of International Law, Vol.
33, pp. , 48 Pages Posted: 18 Apr The Rise and Subsequent Fall of the Third Reich Essay Words | 19 Pages.
The Rise and Subsequent Fall of the Third Reich Living in the crumbled remains of Germany, or the Weimar Republic, in the ’s was a dismal existence.
Tito and the Rise and Fall of Yugoslavia is about the once proud nation of Yugoslavia and how it collasped in to 6 different weak grupobittia.com biography explains how Josiph Broz Tito held the nation of Yugoslavia together for more than 45 years despite deep ethnic and religious conflict and propelled it to the center of the world when it/5.
Adenauer and Post-War Germany Essay - Adenauer and Post-War Germany Introduction The downfall of Germany after the Second World War is an outcome thought by many that time as deserving for a nation touted to have caused one of the most atrocious events in human history.
Yugoslavia registered a remarkable increase in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita, from to by more than five times, entering a period of stagnation only in the s (followed by an extreme fall registered during the years of its break-up; see Figure 1).
Illiberal Tolerance: An Essay on the Fall of Yugoslavia and the Rise of Multiculturalism in the United States. Virginia Journal of International Law, Vol. 33, pp. , Illiberal Tolerance: An Essay on the Fall of Yugoslavia and the Rise of Multiculturalism in the United States.
Virginia Journal of International Law, Vol. 33, pp.