Bubonic Plague In the early s an outbreak of deadly bubonic plague occurred in China. The bubonic plague mainly affects rodents, but fleas can transmit the disease to people. Once people are infected, they infect others very rapidly.
The total number of deaths attributable to this devastating pandemic was 75 million people. The Black Death was characterized by painful swelling in the lymph nodes known as buboes so it was generally considered to be an outbreak of the bubonic plague.
It was caused by the organism,Yersinia pestis which was carried about from the bodies of black rats by fleas. Victims of the disease were covered with dark blotches due to damage to the underlying skin and tissue.
This medical phenomenon known as acral necrosis or subdural hemorrhages gave rise to the term black death. The term black also referred to glum or dreadful due to the devastating effect this disease had on society.
History records the Black Death as having begun in the fourteenth century in southern Russian near the Crimea. The disease progressed along the path of commerce and travel; trading ships arrived at ports with entire crews dead of the disease.
Pre-existing conditions of war and famine only exacerbated the spread of the disease during this era. Farming and trade patterns were disrupted by war, and adverse weather conditions added to the diminishing supply of grains -- wheat, barley, and oats.
Populations already weakened by malnutrition were more susceptible to the disease. The loss of laborers, due to famine and sickness, negatively affected economy which led to poverty and crime.
The Black Death — Manifestations of the epidemic The Black Death had three manifestations -- bubonic plague, pneumonic plague, and septicaemic plague. The bubonic plague had a thirty to seventy-five percent mortality rate.
This manifestation of the disease was characterized by the characteristic swelling of lymph nodes buboes along the neck, armpits, and groin.
These symptoms were accompanied by fever, chills, joint and headaches, malaise, and nausea. The pneumonic plague was the second most common form of the disease; this manifestation was transmitted from person to person, an airborne infection. The symptoms included blood-tinged sputum which became increasingly more free-flowing as the disease progressed.
This form of the disease had a ninety to ninety-five percent mortality rate. The Black Death had a third manifestation know as septicaemic plague.
This form of the disease had an almost one hundred percent mortality rate.
Septicaemic plague was characterized by deep, purple discolorations of the skin and extremely high fevers.
This form of the disease was quite rare. Survivors of the disease had horror stories to tell of life and environment during the plague years.
The air was full of the horrific smell of sick, dead and rotting bodies. Quarantines were set up on land to keep infected people out of the city. Quarantine is a word derived from the Italian word for forty; forty being the number of days thought necessary for a virulent disease to run its course.
Facilities were set up to allow travelers to wait until the forty days were complete; however, black rats and fleas could not be kept out by these methods so disease continued to be spread.
This depopulation had a variety of effects. The European peasant class benefited on the one hand; they were in greater demand due to shortage of labor and there were large areas of unattended fertile land which became available to them.
Landlords offered incentives to the peasants combining freedom and increased wages; many historians hold that these were the first stirrings of capitalism.
Governments, ill prepared for the scope of the tragedy instituted measures such as price controls and prohibition of certain food items. This was largely ineffective.
The influence of the Church was greatly diminished during this period. Many became disillusioned with the Church for its inability to halt the relentless progression of the disease. Faith in God was sorely tested. As a result, the dead clergy were replaced overtime with new church leaders — but these lacked the experience and dedication of those who had passed on.
Biblically, plague has always been seen as a means of divine punishment by God.The Black Death, also often called the “bubonic plague” was an epidemic of disastrous proportions that is said to have killed up to 50% of the European population in the ’s and around 12 million people in China in the s.
The Black Death had three manifestations -- bubonic plague, pneumonic plague, and septicaemic plague. The bubonic plague had a thirty to seventy-five percent mortality rate.
This manifestation of the disease was characterized by the characteristic swelling of lymph nodes (buboes) along the neck, armpits, and groin. Bubonic plague.
This is the most common type. It causes buboes, which are very swollen and painful lymph nodes under the arms, in the neck, or in the groin. Without treatment, the bacteria can.
Oct 28, · Video created for discovery purposes only, no commercial profit. All rights go to the legal owners!!! The Bubonic Plague - Who's That Girl Compilation: Through . Bubonic plague infects your lymphatic system (a part of the immune system), causing inflammation in your lymph nodes.
Untreated, it can move into the blood (causing septicemic plague) or to the lungs (causing pneumonic plague). Bubonic plague is a potentially fatal infection caused by the bacteria Yersinia pestis.
The disease is transmitted by the bite of an infected rat flea (Xenopsylla cheopis) which make its home on smaller rodents such as rats, field mice, and squirrels.